When holding the Kabbadeh, the practitioner's forearm and upper arm with the heavier part of the Kabbadeh (not the chain) must form an angle of about 120 degrees and the other arm is fully extended.


The Practitioner will start the move from the bow and lower the bow all the way down to 90 degree or lower, but above the head. The second move is to straighten the arm with the bow and lower the other arm with the chain, the way the throw will happen and this will make the Kabbadehs sounds, and after the chain is the same position as the bow was, the practitioner has accomplished one count, and the cycle continues.

According to both factors of strength and endurance, practitioner will repeat to do the pair up to 72 repetitions, which is the maximum number of repetitions in the tournaments, and after 72, the referee will score the beauty of the movement according to the rhythm of the moves, angle of the arms (since the practitioner could cheat and not lower the arm enough to avoid working the triceps muscle), discipline of the body, while the morshed is playing and counting for him.

One cycle of steps 1 through 2 is considered "one set" of Kabbadeh. Each cycle normally takes 3-4 seconds. After some practice, the practitioner can move in a rhythmic fashion guided by the drum of the Morshed in Zurkhaneh.

The benefit of Kabbadeh is for building shoulder, triceps, latisimus dorsi muscles, grip strength, and overall upper body strength.

Another aspect of exercising with Kabbadeh is the ability for the practitioner to follow the music of the Morshed inside Zurkhaneh. Almost all Pahlavani exercises are accompanied with rhythmic music. Morshed is the person who chants and plays the drum while guiding the group practitioners.

Kabbadeh is effective in two different aspects:

  1. Endurance
  2. Strength

Endurance: Because of the different type of the kabbadeh according to the length and, weight; With using a lighter weight and more repetition, going to the fatigue, practitioners will apply more challenge and use of the muscle in a longer period of time, and according to the facts of calorie burning, more calories combined with muscle application will lead to raise the endurance and tolerance of the muscle. Many body builders may find this sport suitable and easy for the first couple of swings, or moving the other tools, but as more contraction continues, they may experience a sharp cramp in those muscles which are being used.

After not having the opportunity of practicing zurkhaneh, I personally experience this problem when I go back to group and as a bigger body, try to pick a bigger Kabbadeh.

Strength: as the athlete can choose a heavier club, the work will be harder and more challenging .Therefore needs more strength.

Muscles involved:

  1. The main muscle are the Triceps when each arm is bending
  2. The second big muscle is the latesimus dorsi, and this happens also when bending the elbow and stretching the lat. Also the Shoulder muscles are involved during the whole period of the time since the heavy bow is being lifted and held over the head.
  3. And finally we can call fore arm muscles and wrist, as the other muscle groups involved any time we try to hold the kabbadeh, for avoiding to loose the control and bit the chain.